Dr. Bodner explained the term iconography, and introduced methodological tools for the analysis of medieval iconography. Next she presented several examples of medieval objects and discussed the ways to understand their symbolic meanings. In this manner, she showed that physical objects and images can be used as an important historical sources for the study of medieval history.
Dr. Engel presented the developments of the different Hebrew scripts through the Middle Ages, and discussed the manners in which historical conclusions can be drown from paleographical and codicological observations. We then practiced localization and dating of different manuscripts, concentrating on manuscripts from the 12-15th centuries.