The goal of the present research was to develop a model of work meaning, consisting of five orientations: job (financial compensation), career (advancement and influence), calling (prosocial duty), social embeddedness (belongingness), and busyness (filling idle time with activities). Two versions of the Work Orientation Questionnaire (WOQ), which measures these five orientations, were developed—for young adults and for working adults. Study 1 describes the development of the WOQ and psychometric properties for young adults. Exploratory ( N = 200) and confirmatory ( N = 447) factor analyses supported a five-factor solution, and the five scales, which correspond to the five orientations, had adequate internal consistency reliabilities (median = .81). The divergent validity of the WOQ was supported, as shown by the negligible associations of the five orientations with the 12 scales of the Career Decision-Making Profiles questionnaire. In Study 2, the analyses of the responses of 506 employed adults also supported the five-dimensional structure, and four of the WOQ scales were associated with work satisfaction ( R 2 = .33). Implications for research and practice are discussed along with future research directions.
Through a linguistic analysis of the Hebrew Lord's Prayer, this article endeavors to reach a new understanding of the function of this text in the lives of its users, concluding that the ninth-century Carolingian writer/translator meant for this text to be sung aloud. This article goes back to the basics of textual research—philology and language study—in order to determine the correct historical framework through which to understand this much-debated text, thus adding to our understanding of the religious life and practice of the nuns of Essen at the polyglottic crossroads of Latin and German, Hebrew and Greek. This paper is also an invitation for future studies to continue its effort to rewrite the history of Hebrew in the church, for historians to broaden their toolbox, and for linguists and philologists to contribute their insights to other fields.